Գլխավոր Հիվանդություններ Glycogen storage disease type II

Glycogen storage disease type II (also called Pompe disease /ˈpɒmpə/ or acid maltase deficiency) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder[1] which damages muscle and nerve cells throughout the body. It is caused by an accumulation of glycogen in the lysosome due to deficiency of the lysosomal acid alpha-glucosidase enzyme. It is the only glycogen storage disease with a defect in lysosomal metabolism, and the first glycogen storage disease to be identified, in 1932 by the Dutch pathologist J. C. Pompe. The build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and the nervous system. Classification There are exceptions, but levels of alpha-glucosidase determines the type of GSD II an individual may have. More alpha glucosidase present in the individuals muscles means symptoms occur later in life and progress more slowly. GSD II is broadly divided into two onset forms based on the age symptoms occur. Infantile-onset form is usually diagnosed at 4–8 months; muscles appear normal but are limp and weak preventing them from lifting their head or rolling over. As the disease progresses heart muscles thicken and progressively fail. Without treatment death usually occurs due to heart failure and respiratory weakness. Late or later onset form occurs later than one to two years and progresses more slowly than Infantile-onset form. One of the first symptoms is a progressive decrease in muscle strength starting with the legs and moving to smaller muscles in the trunk and arms, such as the diaphragm and other muscles required for breathing. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Enlargement of the heart muscles and rhythm disturbances are not significant features but do occur in some cases.

Signs and symptoms Infantile The infantile form usually comes to medical attention within the first few months of life. The usual presenting features are cardiomegaly (92%), hypotonia (88%), cardiomyopathy (88%), respiratory distress (78%), muscle weakness (63%), feeding difficulties (57%) and failure to thrive (50%). The main clinical findings include floppy baby appearance, delayed motor milestones and feeding difficulties. Moderate hepatomegaly may be present. Facial features include macroglossia, wide open mouth, wide open eyes, nasal flaring (due to respiratory distress), and poor facial muscle tone. Cardiopulmonary involvement is manifest by increased respiratory rate, use of accessory muscles for respiration, recurrent chest infections, decreased air entry in the left lower zone (due to cardiomegaly), arrhythmias and evidence of heart failure. Median age at death in untreated cases is 8.7 months and is usually due to cardiorespiratory failure. Late onset form This form differs from the infantile principally in the relative lack of cardiac involvement. The onset is more insidious and has a slower progression. Cardiac involvement may occur but is milder than in the infantile form. Skeletal involvement is more prominent with a predilection for the lower limbs. Late onset features include impaired cough, recurrent chest infections, hypotonia, progressive muscle weakness, delayed motor milestones, difficulty swallowing or chewing and reduced vital capacity. Prognosis depends on the age of onset on symptoms with a better prognosis being associated with later onset disease. Diagnosis The usual initial investigations include chest X ray, electrocardiogram and echocardiography. Typical findings are those of an enlarged heart with non specific conduction defects. Biochemical investigations include serum creatine kinase (typically increased 10 fold) with lesser elevations of the serum aldolase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase. Diagnosis is made by estimating the acid alpha glucosidase activity in either skin biopsy (fibroblasts), muscle biopsy (muscle cells) or in white blood cells. The choice of sample depends on the facilities available at the diagnostic laboratory. In the late onset form, the findings on investigation are similar to those of the infantile form with the caveat that the creatinine kinases may be normal in some cases. The diagnosis is by estimation of the enzyme activity in a suitable sample. On May 17, 2013 the Secretary's Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Diseases in Newborns and Children (DACHDNC) approved a recommendation to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to add Pompe to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel The HHS secretary must first approve the recommendation before the disease is formally added to the panel.

© 2016-2017 - Hospitals.am, Ստեղծված "ԱՐԴԱՍԵ"-ի կողմից

Զանգ օպերատորին      +37460651003