Գլխավոր Հիվանդություններ Von Willebrand disease

Von Willebrand disease (vWD) (/ˌfʌnˈvɪlᵻbrɑːnt/) is the most common hereditary blood-clotting disorder in humans. An acquired form can sometimes result from other medical conditions. It arises from a deficiency in the quality or quantity of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a multimeric protein that is required for platelet adhesion. It is known to affect humans and several breeds of dogs. The three forms of vWD are: hereditary, acquired, and pseudo or platelet type. The three types of hereditary vWD are: vWD type 1, vWD type 2, and vWD type 3. Type 2 contains various subtypes. Platelet type vWD is also an inherited condition. vWD type 1 is the most common type of the disorder which is typically asymptomatic, though mild symptoms such as nosebleeds may occur, and occasionally more severe symptoms. Blood type can affect the presentation and severity of symptoms of vWD. vWD is named after Erik Adolf von Willebrand, a Finnish physician who first described the disease in 1926. Signs and symptoms The various types of vWD present with varying degrees of bleeding tendency, usually in the form of easy bruising, nosebleeds, and bleeding gums. Women may experience heavy menstrual periods and blood loss during childbirth. Severe internal bleeding or bleeding into joints is uncommon in all but the most severe type, vWD type 3. Genetics The vWF gene is located on the short arm p of chromosome 12 (12p13.2). It has 52 exons spanning 178kbp. Types 1 and 2 are inherited as autosomal dominant traits and type 3 is inherited as autosomal recessive. Occasionally, type 2 also inherits recessively.

Pathophysiology For the normal function of the coagulation factor, see von Willebrand factor. The vWF is mainly active in conditions of high blood flow and shear stress. Deficiency of vWF, therefore, shows primarily in organs with extensive small vessels, such as skin, gastrointestinal tract, and uterus. In angiodysplasia, a form of telangiectasia of the colon, shear stress is much higher than in average capillaries, and the risk of bleeding is increased concomitantly. In more severe cases of type 1 vWD, genetic changes are common within the vWF gene and are highly penetrant. In milder cases of type 1 vWD, a complex spectrum of molecular pathology may exist in addition to polymorphisms of the vWF gene alone. The individual's ABO blood group can influence presentation and pathology of vWD. Those individuals with blood group O have a lower mean level than individuals with other blood groups. Unless ABO group–specific vWF:antigen reference ranges are used, normal group O individuals can be diagnosed as type I vWD, and some individuals of blood group AB with a genetic defect of vWF may have the diagnosis overlooked because vWF levels are elevated due to blood group. Diagnosis When vWD is suspected, blood plasma of a patient must be investigated for quantitative and qualitative deficiencies of vWF. This is achieved by measuring the amount of vWF in a vWF antigen assay and the functionality of vWF with a glycoprotein (GP)Ib binding assay, a collagen binding assay, or a ristocetin cofactor activity (RiCof) or ristocetin induced platelet agglutination (RIPA) assays. Factor VIII levels are also performed because factor VIII is bound to vWF which protects the factor VIII from rapid breakdown within the blood. Deficiency of vWF can then lead to a reduction in factor VIII levels, which explains the elevation in PTT time. Normal levels do not exclude all forms of vWD, particularly type 2, which may only be revealed by investigating platelet interaction with subendothelium under flow, a highly specialized coagulation study not routinely performed in most medical laboratories. A platelet aggregation assay will show an abnormal response to ristocetin with normal responses to the other agonists used. A platelet function assay may give an abnormal collagen/adrenaline closure time, and in most cases, a normal collagen/ADP time. Type 2N may be considered if factor VIII levels are disproportionately low, but confirmation requires a factor VIII binding assay. Detection of vWD is complicated by vWF being an acute phase reactant with levels rising in infection, pregnancy, and stress. Other tests performed in any patient with bleeding problems are a complete blood count (especially platelet counts), activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen level. Testing for factor IX may also be performed if hemophilia B is suspected. Other coagulation factor assays may be performed depending on the results of a coagulation screen. Patients with von Willebrand disease typically display a normal prothrombin time and a variable prolongation of partial thromboplastin time. The testing for vWD can be influenced by laboratory procedures. Numerous variables exist in the testing procedure that may affect the validity of the test results and may result in a missed or erroneous diagnosis. The chance of procedural errors are typically greatest during the preanalytical phase (during collecting storage and transportation of the specimen) especially when the testing is contracted to an outside facility and the specimen is frozen and transported long distances. Diagnostic errors are not uncommon, and the rate of testing proficiency varies amongst laboratories, with error rates ranging from 7 to 22% in some studies to as high as 60% in cases of misclassification of vWD subtype. To increase the probability of a proper diagnosis, testing should be done at a facility with immediate on-site processing in a specialized coagulation laboratory. Types The four hereditary types of vWD described are type 1, type 2, type 3, and pseudo- or platelet-type. Most cases are hereditary, but acquired forms of vWD have been described. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis's classification depends on the definition of qualitative and quantitative defects. Type ' Type 1 vWD (60-80% of all vWD cases) is a quantitative defect which is heterozygous for the defective gene. It can arise from failure to secrete vWF into the circulation or from vWF being cleared more quickly than normal. Decreased levels of vWF are detected at 10-45% of normal, i.e. 10-45 IU. Many patients are asymptomatic or may have mild symptoms and not have clearly impaired clotting, which might suggest a bleeding disorder. Often, the discovery of vWD occurs incidentally to other medical procedures requiring a blood work-up. Most cases of type 1 vWD are never diagnosed due to the asymptomatic or mild presentation of type I and most people usually end up leading a normal life free of complications, with many being unaware that they have the disorder. Trouble may, however, arise in some patients in the form of bleeding following surgery (including dental procedures), noticeable easy bruising, or menorrhagia (heavy menstrual periods). The minority of cases of type 1 may present with severe hemorrhagic symptoms. Type 2 Type 2 vWD (20-30% of cases) is a qualitative defect and the bleeding tendency can vary between individuals. Four subtypes exist: 2A, 2B, 2M, and 2N. Type 2A The vWF is quantitatively normal but qualitatively defective. The ability of the defective von Willebrand factors to coalesce and form large vWF multimers is impaired, resulting in decreased quantity of large vWF multimers and low RCoF activity. Only small multimer units are detected in the circulation. Von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) assay is low or normal. Type 2B This is a gain of function defect. The ability of the qualitatively defective vWF to bind to glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) receptor on the platelet membrane is abnormally enhanced, leading to its spontaneous binding to platelets and subsequent rapid clearance of the bound platelets and of the large vWF multimers. Thrombocytopenia may occur. Large vWF multimers are reduced or absent from the circulation. The ristocetin cofactor activity is low when the patient's platelet-poor plasma is assayed against formalin-fixed, normal donor platelets. However, when the assay is performed with the patient's own platelets (platelet-rich plasma), a lower-than-normal amount of ristocetin causes aggregation to occur. This is due to the large vWF multimers remaining bound to the patient's platelets. Patients with this subtype are unable to use desmopressin as a treatment for bleeding, because it can lead to unwanted platelet aggregation and aggravation of thrombocytopenia.

© 2016-2017 - Hospitals.am, Ստեղծված "ԱՐԴԱՍԵ"-ի կողմից

Զանգ օպերատորին      +37460651003