Գլխավոր Հիվանդություններ Immune thrombocytopenic purpura

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is defined as isolated low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) with normal bone marrow and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. It causes a characteristic purpuric rash and an increased tendency to bleed. Two distinct clinical syndromes manifest as an acute condition in children and a chronic condition in adults. The acute form often follows an infection and has a spontaneous resolution within two months. Chronic immune thrombocytopenia persists longer than six months with a specific cause being unknown. ITP is an autoimmune disease with antibodies detectable against several platelet surface antigens. ITP is diagnosed by a low platelet count in a complete blood count (a common blood test). However, since the diagnosis depends on the exclusion of other causes of a low platelet count, additional investigations (such as a bone marrow biopsy) may be necessary in some cases. In mild cases, only careful observation may be required but very low counts or significant bleeding may prompt treatment with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, or immunosuppressive drugs. Refractory ITP (not responsive to conventional treatment) may require splenectomy, the surgical removal of the spleen. Platelet transfusions may be used in severe bleeding together with a very low count. Sometimes the body may compensate by making abnormally large platelets.

Signs and symptoms Signs include the spontaneous formation of bruises (purpura) and petechiae (tiny bruises), especially on the extremities, bleeding from the nostrils and/or gums, and menorrhagia (excessive menstrual bleeding), any of which may occur if the platelet count is below 20,000 per μl. A very low count (<10,000 per μl) may result in the spontaneous formation of hematomas (blood masses) in the mouth or on other mucous membranes. Bleeding time from minor lacerations or abrasions is usually prolonged. Serious and possibly fatal complications due to extremely low counts (<5,000 per μl) include subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull or brain), lower gastrointestinal bleeding or other internal bleeding. An ITP patient with an extremely low count is vulnerable to internal bleeding caused by blunt abdominal trauma, as might be experienced in a motor vehicle crash. These complications are not likely when the platelet count is above 20,000 per μl. Pathogenesis In approximately 60 percent of cases, antibodies against platelets can be detected. Most often these antibodies are against platelet membrane glycoproteins IIb-IIIa or Ib-IX, and are of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) type. The Harrington–Hollingsworth experiment, established the immune pathogenesis of ITP. The coating of platelets with IgG renders them susceptible to opsonization and phagocytosis by splenic macrophages, as well by Kupffer cells in the liver. The IgG autoantibodies are also thought to damage megakaryocytes, the precursor cells to platelets, although this is believed to contribute only slightly to the decrease in platelet numbers. Recent research now indicates that impaired production of the glycoprotein hormone thrombopoietin, which is the stimulant for platelet production, may be a contributing factor to the reduction in circulating platelets. This observation has led to the development of a class of ITP-targeted drugs referred to as thrombopoietin receptor agonists. The stimulus for auto-antibody production in ITP is probably abnormal T cell activity. Preliminary findings suggest that these T cells can be influenced by drugs that target B cells, such as rituximab. Diagnosis The diagnosis of ITP is a process of exclusion. First, it has to be determined that there are no blood abnormalities other than a low platelet count, and no physical signs other than bleeding. Then, secondary causes (5–10 percent of suspected ITP cases) should be excluded. Such secondary causes include leukemia, medications (e.g., quinine, heparin), lupus erythematosus, cirrhosis, HIV, hepatitis C, congenital causes, antiphospholipid syndrome, von Willebrand factor deficiency, onyalai and others.[2][9] In approximately one percent of cases, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and ITP coexist, a condition referred to as Evans syndrome, a condition that points to CLL as a possible cause. Despite the destruction of platelets by splenic macrophages, the spleen is normally not enlarged. In fact, an enlarged spleen should lead to a search for other possible causes for the thrombocytopenia. Bleeding time is usually prolonged in ITP patients. However, the use of bleeding time in diagnosis is discouraged by the American Society of Hematology practice guidelines[10] and a normal bleeding time does not exclude a platelet disorder. Bone marrow examination may be performed on patients over the age of 60 and those who do not respond to treatment, or when the diagnosis is in doubt. On examination of the marrow, an increase in the production of megakaryocytes may be observed and may help in establishing a diagnosis of ITP. An analysis for anti-platelet antibodies is a matter of clinician's preference, as there is disagreement on whether the 80 percent specificity of this test is sufficient to be clinically useful. Treatment With rare exceptions, there is usually no need to treat based on platelet counts. Many older recommendations suggested a certain platelet count threshold (usually somewhere below 20.0/µl) as an indication for hospitalization or treatment. Current guidelines recommend treatment only in cases of significant bleeding. Treatment recommendations sometimes differ for adult and pediatric ITP. Steroids Initial treatment usually consists of the administration of corticosteroids, a group of medications that suppress the immune system. The dose and mode of administration is determined by platelet count and whether there is active bleeding: in urgent situations, infusions of dexamethasone or methylprednisolone may be used, while oral prednisone or prednisolone may suffice in less severe cases. Once the platelet count has improved, the dose of steroid is gradually reduced while the possibility of relapse is monitored. 60–90 percent will experience a relapse during dose reduction or cessation. Long-term steroids are avoided if possible because of potential side-effects that include osteoporosis, diabetes and cataracts. Steroid-sparing agents There is increasing use of Immunosuppresants such as mycophenolate mofetil and azathioprine because of their effectiveness. In chronic refractory cases, where immune pathogenesis has been confirmed, the off-label use of vincristine, a chemotherapy agent, may be attempted. However, this vinca alkaloid has significant side effects and its use in treating ITP must be approached with caution, especially in children. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be infused in some cases. However, while sometimes effective, it is costly and produces improvement that generally lasts less than a month. Nevertheless, in the case of an ITP patient already scheduled for surgery who has a dangerously low platelet count and has experienced a poor response to other treatments, IVIg can increase the count and reduce bleeding risk.

© 2016-2017 - Hospitals.am, Ստեղծված "ԱՐԴԱՍԵ"-ի կողմից

Զանգ օպերատորին      +37460651003